NASA – Earth Sciences Missions
JPSS, the Joint Polar Satellite System, is the next-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite system of the United States of America under operation by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NASA. It has a number of objectives including the improvement of the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather forecasts, the provision of advanced atmospheric data products, the collection of imaging products for fire, volcano and oil tracking, and the continuation of long-term climate observations.
CYGNSS – the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite Mission, is a multi-satellite mission operated by NASA to establish a space-based system for the study of the interaction between the sea and air near the core of tropical storms with the goal of improving extreme weather predictions.
GOES-R inaugurates the fourth generation of geostationary weather satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in a collaborative effort with NASA. The satellites are considered the most powerful meteorological spacecraft ever built and host a newly defined sensor complement offering superior data acquisition time and quality for enhanced monitoring of weather across the American continent.
DSCOVR is the first operational spacecraft to be deployed to the Sun Earth Lagrange Point 1 to deliver continuous full-disk observations of Earth and measure space weather parameters, located in a position 1.5 Million Kilometers closer to the sun. The spacecraft carries a polychromatic imaging camera, an advanced radiometer and a plasma instrumentation suite to obtain measurements of the solar wind, the interplanetary magnetic field and observe the sun-lit portion of Earth.
SMAP, standing for Soil Moisture Active/Passive, is a NASA Environmental Research Satellite that combines a radar and radiometric instrument to measure land surface and soil moisture on a global scale at a very quick revisit rate to deliver data valuable in the understanding of Earth’s water, energy and carbon cycles, as well as valuable information for the improvement of weather and climate forecasting, flood prediction and drought monitoring.
OCO-2 – the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 is a NASA mission studying carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere on a global scale for a better understanding of the carbon cycle, and the natural processes and human activities that have an effect on the abundance and distribution of CO2, the most important greenhouse gas.
The Global Precipitation Measurement is a worldwide multi-agency effort led by NASA and JAXA with the goal of establishing a satellite constellation to acquire global precipitation measurements every two to four hours. For that, the project coordinates instruments on several satellites operated by a number of agencies orbiting Earth at different altitudes and inclinations.
NPP, a weather and climate mission, is an effort led by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center that is carrying the first of the new sensors that will be utilized as part of that next-generation system called the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS).