NASA - Earth Sciences Missions
DSCOVR is the first operational spacecraft to be deployed to the Sun Earth Lagrange Point 1 to deliver continuous full-disk observations of Earth and measure space weather parameters, located in a position 1.5 Million Kilometers closer to the sun. The spacecraft carries a polychromatic imaging camera, an advanced radiometer and a plasma instrumentation suite to obtain measurements of the solar wind, the interplanetary magnetic field and observe the sun-lit portion of Earth.
SMAP, standing for Soil Moisture Active/Passive, is a NASA Environmental Research Satellite that combines a radar and radiometric instrument to measure land surface and soil moisture on a global scale at a very quick revisit rate to deliver data valuable in the understanding of Earth's water, energy and carbon cycles, as well as valuable information for the improvement of weather and climate forecasting, flood prediction and drought monitoring.
OCO-2 – the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 is a NASA mission studying carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere on a global scale for a better understanding of the carbon cycle, and the natural processes and human activities that have an effect on the abundance and distribution of CO2, the most important greenhouse gas.
The Global Precipitation Measurement is a worldwide multi-agency effort led by NASA and JAXA with the goal of establishing a satellite constellation to acquire global precipitation measurements every two to four hours. For that, the project coordinates instruments on several satellites operated by a number of agencies orbiting Earth at different altitudes and inclinations.